Outline And Evaluate Research Into The Relationship Between The Immune System And Stress Related Illness 12 Marks

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Effects on Stress in the Immune System

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    Stress and Well Being

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    Stress and the Immune System

    ‘Outline and evaluate a piece of research that shows a relationship between stress and the immune system’ The immune system is a collection of billions of cells that travel through the bloodstream.  They move in and out of tissues and organs, defending the body against foreign bodies (antigens), such as bacteria, viruses and cancerous cells. There are two types of lymphocytes within the immune system, these are; B cells- produce antibodies which are released into the fluid surrounding the body’s

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    Research That Has Suggested a Link Between Stress and Ill Health

    Research that has suggested a link between stress and ill health. Looking at the link between stress and illness, there have been many studies done to show the direct effect stress has in relation to illness, the main three pathways looked at are the direct effect, stress interacting with pre-existing vulnerabilities and how stress leads to behavioural changes that are not beneficial to one’s health. However it is hard for researchers to establish a definite cause and effect relationship between

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    Outline and Evaluate Biological Approach to Stress

    Outline and evaluate the Biological approach to abnormality The biological approach suggests that psychological disorders should be treated medically, as this model puts forward the idea that any psychological abnormality is causes by genetic factors and body malfunctions. The model as 4 different elements that may be the cause of psychological abnormalities; viral infections, biochemistry, brain damage, genetic factors. Several studies have been carried out by different researchers to investigate

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress-Related Illness. (12 Marks)

    There has been a lot of research that suggests that the immune system can be severely affected by stress. Kiecolt-Glaser did an experiment to evaluate the effect of acute stressors on the immune system. She had a group of students who were about to have their medical exams. She took the blood sample one month before the exams and another during the exam period. She measured the NK cell activity to see how the immune system was effected and found that the NK cell activity had dropped significantly

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    Stress and Illness Essay - Psychology

    Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and stress related illness (12 marks) Taylor McAndrew AO1 Cohen et al (1993) investigated the role of general life stress on vulnerability to the common cold virus. He found that the chance of developing a cold, i.e. failing to fight off the infection, was significantly correlated with stress index scores. Cohen et al. concluded that life stress and negative emotions reduce the effectiveness of our immune system,

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    Outline and Evaluate Two Theories of the Formation of Relationships

    Outline and evaluate two theories of the maintenance of relationships Social Exchange Theory (SET) is one explanation of the maintenance of relationships. It assumes that all social behaviour is a series of exchanges where individuals attempt to maximise their rewards and minimise costs. Exchange refers to when an individual receives an award from others, they feel obliged to reciprocate. These rewards that we may receive from a relationship may include companionship, security and sex. Costs are

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress-Related Illness. (12marks)

    Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and Stress-related illness. (12marks) It is suggested that stress can result in immunosuppression which can lead to stress-related illnesses such as Coronary Heart Disease and high blood pressure. Kiecolt and Glaser conducted an experiment to see the effects of stress on the immune system. This was achieved by taking blood samples of 75 medical students one month before and during their examination period. They then compared

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    Research on Combat Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Ty Meeks Psych 32 April 15, 2012 Research on Combat Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder The first reported case of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder dates back nearly 3000 years. In 1000BC an Egyptian combat veteran named Hori wrote, “You determine to go forward. Shuddering seizes you, the hair on your head stands on end, your soul lies in your hand” (Dyer). Since the beginning of wars men have been terrified of dyeing, and subjected to horrific scenes of devastation

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    Outline and Evaluate the Multi – Store Model of Memory ( 12 Marks )

    technology such as MRI and PET scans which show different brain patterns when patients are performing tasks associated with STM and LTM, therefore showing there are separate stores in memory.( 39 words ) Empirical research also provides evidence of separate stores for example research on primacy-recency effect. Glanzer and Cunitz found that participants who were asked to remember lists of words could remember the first and last few words but the ones in the middle were more difficult. This supports

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    Psychology and Management of Stress

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    Outline and Evaluate Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development - 24 Marks

    Outline and evaluate Kohlberg’s theory of moral development (8+16 marks) Lawrence Kohlberg was influenced by Piaget’s theory of moral development where he also believed that the moral reasoning of children changes over time; he also used moral dilemmas to gather insight into the types of reasoning used by people as they mature. Kohlberg proposed six separate stages of moral development which he grouped together into three levels with the key points of this theory being that the stages are universal

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    Stress Related Illness on the Immune System

    investigated the link between general life stressors and vulnerability to the common cold virus. He took 394 healthy individuals and asked them to complete questionnaires on the number of stressful life events they had experienced the previous year, the degree of their stress and their level of negative emotions. The three scores were combined to what is called a stress index. He found that the chance of developing a cold was linked with stress levels. Cohen et al. concluded that stress reduces the effectiveness

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into Personality Types and Stress Related Illness. (12 Marks)

    Outline and evaluate research into personality types and stress related illness. (12 marks) Friedman and Rosenman identified two types of personality that relate to individual responses to stress these were type A and type B. Type A personalities are said to be impatient, competitive, ambitious, aggressive, find it hard to relax. In contrast, type B personalities are the opposite, being less driven, more easy going, patient and able to relax. Friedman and Rosenman conducted a longitudinal study

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    Describe and Evaluate the Milgran Study (12 Marks)

    Describe and evaluate the Milgram study (12 marks) Milgram had set out a study for an attempt to test ‘the Germans are different’ and to see whether or not participants would have authority to a person of a higher position of authority. Milgram selected the participants he was using for the study by advertising for male participants to take part in a study of learning for Yale University. He offered a payment for $4.00 for an hour of the participant’s time for taking part. Milgram had paired the

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    Outline and Evaluate the Relationship Between the Workplace and Stress

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    Outline and Critically Evaluate Research Into Out-of-Body Experiences

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    Outline & Evaluate Research Into the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress-Related Illness

    Outline & evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and stress-related illness (12) AO1 - COHEN ET AL investigated the role of general life stress on vulnerability to the common cold virus. 394 participants completed questionnaires on the number of stressful life events experience in the previous year. They also rated their degree of stress and level of negative emotions such as depression. The 3 scores were combined into a stress index. Ps were then exposed to the

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    Outline the Policies That New Labour Have Introduced to the Education System Since 1997 [12 Marks]

    Outline the policies that New Labour have introduced to the education system since 1997 [12 marks] Labour governments since 1997 have sought both to reduce inequality of achievement and promote greater diversity, choice and competition within the education system. They believed that achieving these goals would also make Britain as a whole, more competitive in the global economy by turning the nation into a high skill, high wage society. The labour party has traditionally had a strong focus on promoting

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into Life Changes and/or Daily Hassles. (12)

    daily hassles. Holmes & Rahe, two American doctors saw that the medical records showed that patients who got ill the most contained lots of life events prior to their illness. They decided to make a list of 43 life events after looking at the medical records of over 5000 patients. They needed some way to make a relationship between life changes and how many times they got ill. So they got 400 men and women to look at the list and rate the events on how much adjustment they would require. After all

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    Outline and Evaluate the Functionalist View of the Role of the Family in Society (33 Marks).

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into Privation.

    Outline and evaluate research into Privation Privation is the failure to form an attachment, this may be due to extremely poor parenting or prolonged stays away from a potential attachment figure, e.g. whilst in hospital. One famous study on extreme privation is the case study of Genie: Genie was locked in a room by her father until she was thirteen and a half years old and never fully recovered and proceeded to lack social responsiveness. Her lack of recovery may be due to the fact that she was

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into Cross Cultural Variations in Attachment.

    Outline and evaluate research into cross cultural variations in attachment. There are three main experiments that deal with the hypothesis of cross cultural variations in attachment by using the basis of the Strange Situation test. Van Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988) these two men created a meta-analysis which is where they collect already completed experiments and compare them too each other on a specific topic. This allows researchers to get a better look at overall trends and identify possible

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into Life Changes and/ or Daily Hassles as Sources of Stress

    Outline and Evaluate research into life changes and/ or daily hassles as sources of stress Holmes and Rahe carried out research into the idea that life changes are linked to stress and illness. They suggested that change is stressful and therefore this affects health. They developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), as a way to measure the relationship between life changes and physical illness. The SRRS is made up of 43 life events and each event is given a score called life change units

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    Relation Between Stress and Physical Illness

    Abstract This research looks at the relationship between physical illness and stress. The goal is the show that there is in fact a direct link between stress and physical diseases. This has been done through studies involving rats, monkeys, and even parents of children with cancer. Upon examination of these studies, it becomes apparent that even though differences in characteristics between individuals cause much variability in the link between illness stress, there still proves to be a strong correlation

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    “Outline and Evaluate Two Ways of Measuring Crime. Refer to Evidence and/or Published Example in Your Answer” (12 Marks)

    actual crime. The crimes that do not appear on the official statistics are known as the ‘dark figure’. This was investigated and looked into by Farrington and Dowd’s (1985); the aim of their experiment was to see the differences in crime figures between countries in the UK. They did this by analyzing random samples of police records of crimes. They found that in certain areas what was considered worthy enough to report in one area was not in the other two areas. Through this investigation it was

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    Outline and Evaluate the Relationship Between the Immune System and Stress

    Outline and evaluate research into the relationship between the immune system and Stress-related illness. (12marks) It is suggested that stress can result in immunosuppression which can lead to stress-related illnesses such as Coronary Heart Disease and high blood pressure. Kiecolt and Glaser conducted an experiment to see the effects of stress on the immune system. This was achieved by taking blood samples of 75 medical students one month before and during their examination period. They then compared

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    Immune System

    The immune system is a network of cells that join together to combat the body against the attacks of a foreign invaders. These foreign invaders are mainly microbes such as parasites, fungi, and bacteria. Viruses are also considered foreign invaders to the body. The immune system’s job is to keep these foreign invaders out of the body. If some of them do come in the body, then it’s job is to kill them. A pathogen can be viewed as an infectious agent. It causes illness or disease to its host. It

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    Outline and Evaluate at Least Two Issues in Classifying or Diagnosing Schizophrenia (24 Marks)

    Outline and evaluate at least two issues in classifying or diagnosing schizophrenia (24 marks) One issue relating to the diagnosis and classification of sz is reliability. Inter-rater reliability is the extent to which psychiatrists can agree on the same diagnoses when independently assessing patients, and Test-retest reliability is the extent to which the tests used to deliver these diagnoses are consistent over time. DSM-III was designed to provide a more reliable system for classifying psychiatric

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    Describe and Evaluate the Biological Method of Psychopathology (12 Marks)

    Describe and evaluate the biological method of psychopathology (12 Marks) By Amy Smith The biological model (which is also known as ‘the somatic model’) assumes that all psychological disorders are physical illnesses. This model of psychopathology labels mental disorders like this and therefore has both positive and negative outcomes. The biological model states that the causes of mental disorders are normally down to one or more of the following four; genetics, neurotransmitters, infections and

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into Types of Attachment

    Outline and evaluate research into types of attachment. The Strange Situation was devised by Mary Ainsworth and her colleagues in order to test the nature of attachment by placing an infant in conditions of mild distress which was caused by the presence of a stranger and separation from the caregiver. This also allowed the observers to measure stranger anxiety and separation anxiety. The procedure consisted of eight episodes with each episode designated to behaviour for example episode 3 the entrance

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into Conformity

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    Outline and Evaluate Realist Approaches to Crime (50 Marks)

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    Outline Some of the Functions That the Education System May Preform (12 Marks)

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    The Relationship Between a Research Study and Research Article

    In today’s society, the majority of the public receives its news from networks putting forth mass media broadcasts. Many of these news stories attempt to summarize published research studies; however, people need to understand that all of the information they receive from news networks are not always accurate and truthful. The article “Study says person's trustworthiness determined by how close photo is taken,” published by Fox News on October 25th, 2012, is an example of how a news network can

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Studies Into Conformity

    A research done in conformity was conducted by Sherif. He did a lab experiment where he asked participants to watch a non-moving light in a dark room. The light appeared to move when in fact it was a visual illusion. Participants were asked to estimate the movement of the light alone and then in groups of three. He found that when participants were asked to estimate the movement of the light alone there was a variation in answers. However, when they were in groups of three participants changed their

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    Outline and Evaluate Psychological Research Into Biological Methods of Stress Management (12 Marks)

    When trying to cope with stress, some individuals use biological treatments (drugs) to help them manage their stress as it directly targets the stress response systems. One example is Benzodiazepines (BZs), such as Librium and Valium, they work by slowing down the activity of the central nervous system and reduce central arousal. BZs enhance the actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) which is a neurotransmitter and is the body’s natural form of anxiety relief. BZs enhance the action by reacting

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    Discuss the Effect That Stress Has on the Immune System (12 Marks).Docx Uploaded Successfully

    effect on the immune system functioning. They took blood samples of the 75 participants one month before their final exams and then again on the first day of exams. The blood samples were then analysed for leucocyte activity of the natural killer cell. Questionnaires were also given to establish the students’ psychiatric mind set and their life events. They found that the natural killer cell activity decreased in the second blood sample, compared with the first. Furthermore, immune response was particularly

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    To Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment (1969) (12-Mks)

    To outline and evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment (1969) (12-mks) Bowlby (1969), developed a theory that babies have an innate drive to become attached. Bowlby suggested that as part of a biological process, when babies are born they drive themselves to develop at least one strong bond to a maternal partner such as the mother. This is supported by Lorenz (1952) who carried out research on imprinting in baby geese. Lorenz studied goslings after they had hatched and discovered that they had

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    Outline and Evaluate the Contributions of Psychological Research (Theories and/or Studies) to Our Understanding of the Formation of Relationships

    Outline and evaluate the contributions of psychological research (theories and/or studies) to our understanding of the formation of relationships (24 marks) One theory of formation of relationships that has contributed to our understanding of the formation of relationships, is the reward/need satisfaction theory. Byrne and Clove suggest that this theory means mutual attraction occurs when each partner meets the other persons need through operant conditioning. This might be the need for financial

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Into Obedience

    with an order from another person to carry out an action. Many studies have been conducted into looking at obedience in people and what factors in a certain situation lead people to obey. In 1963, Milgram carried out a study among 40 American males between the ages of 20 and 50 years old, with the study aim being wanting to find out under what conditions would different people obey to authority under. The participants were deceived into thinking they would be emitting electric shocks, to inflict pain

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    Outline and Evaluate Research Related to Facts About Short Term Memory (Coding, Capacity and Duration of Memory)

    memory is between 5-9 things. Coding is the format of which things are stored in our memory. Duration is the amount of time we can remember something for. Short term memory has duration of between 18-30 seconds. There have been various amounts of research done by different people on capacity, duration and coding. Firstly research on capsid was done by joseph Jacobs. Jacobs developed the theory that how much someone could remember could be tested by using digit span. During this test a research would

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    Outline and Evaluate One Psychological Explanation and One Biological Explanation of an Eating Disorder. [24 Marks]

    Outline and evaluate one psychological explanation and one biological explanation of an eating disorder. [24 marks] Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterised by recurrent binge-eating followed by self-induced vomiting or another compensatory behaviour (purging). One psychological explanation of bulimia nervosa is the functional model which was created by Polivy et al. in 1994. This model suggests that individuals engage in the binge-eating associated with BN as a way of coping with

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    Outline and Evaluate the Role of Genes and Hormones in Gender Development (24 Marks).

    Outline and evaluate the role of genes and hormones in gender development (24 marks). The biological approach of gender development believes that an individual’s gender is decided at the same time that their sex is decided. An individual’s gender is influenced by their chromosomes and hormones. The pair of sex chromosomes dictates whether the foetus will be male or female. The female chromosome pair is XX and the male chromosome pair is XY. At about 6 weeks, the Y chromosome develops the gonads

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    Outline and Evaluate Circadian Rhythms

    Describe and evaluate research into circadian rhythms (8+16) Research into circadian rhythms has assessed the effects of isolating participants from external time cues (exogenous zeitgebers) on our 24 hour cycles, and suggesting that an internal body clock (endogenous pacemaker) creates a free running sleep/wake cycle rhythm of 25 hours. Siffre (1975) * Case study of his own experiences in an underground cave for 2 months. Without any exogenous zeitgebers such as light or cues to guide him

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    Outline and Evaluate Explanations for Insomnia. (24 Marks)

    factor causes the other, such as the possibility that personality causes insomnia and Vis versa. Significantly, this means that we cannot conclude that Personality has a direct influence on Insomnia. However, although there isn’t an established relationship between insomnia and personality, the study has provided practical applications. As nowadays, personality profiling is stressed more this is beneficial as personality types will be able to identify those who are possibly at risk of suffering from insomnia

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    Outline and Evaluate the Working Memory Model (12 Marks)

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    Work Related Stress

    Guide Work-related stress What the law says ‘Stress at work is a major issue … together we can successfully manage and prevent it.’ Health and Safety Executive (HSE) ‘Whatever your industry, size of business or location, there are things you can do for the health and well-being of your employees.’ Health, Work and Well-being ‘Work can have a positive impact on our health and well-being. Healthy and well-motivated employees can have an equally positive impact on the productivity

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    Outline and Evaluate the Breakdown of Relationships

    Outline and evalute the breakdown of relationships A01- Duck skills maintenance A02-Shavier, Rofhling IDA- gender bias PA- ccet - china A01-rollie and duck -stages of breakdown A02 - Tashiro and Frazier A03- methological flaws IDA - determinsitic Duck suggested that relationships breakdown due to various of reasons, such as lack of skills. This means that people in the relationships have a lack of interpersonal skills to make eachother mutally satisfyimg, if a person lacks interpersonal

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