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    There are different levels of severity of pain and several categories of drugs that treat it Morphine is a type of narcotic drug synthesized from opium. It is a drug called an opiate that is used to alleviate pain. Opioids are substances that bind to the kappa, lambda and mu opioid receptors in the brain. Morphine acts mainly on mu receptors to decrease the transmission of painful stimuli through the spinal cord from body to brain, as well as action within the brain itself. Currently, it is legal

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    Drug Analysis

    effects | Nursing responsibilities | Oxynorm 1mg/IV q8Drug class:Opioid agonist analgesic | Acts as an agonist at specific opioid receptors in the CNS to produce analgesia, euphoria, sedation; the receptors mediating these effects are thought to be the same as those mediating the effects of endogenous opioids. | Relief of moderate to moderately severe pain | Hypersensitivity to opioids; diarrhea caused by poisoningUse cautiously with acute abdominal conditions, CV disease, supraventricular tachycardia

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    Methadone for Heroin Addiction

    to heroin and other opioid drugs, including morphine. Like other narcotics, heroin releases dopamine into the bloodstream which activates the brain’s pleasure receptors producing a state of high euphoria. To maintain the same level of pleasure, heroin addicts must take increasing amounts of the drug to maintain a continuous supply of opioid to brain receptors. This produces extreme swings in mood and behavior as the drug peaks and ebbs in the bloodstream. A synthetic opioid, methadone does three

    Words: 3771 - Pages: 16

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    Opioid Administration and Pain Management in the Terminally Ill Cancer Patient:

    Opioid Administration and Pain Management in the Terminally Ill Cancer Patient: Case study of a patient in the terminal phase of breast cancer. This case study is based on Ms. D, a 48-year-old married woman diagnosed with Bilateral Breast Cancer. She underwent a bilateral mastectomy 4 years ago. Lymph involvement was noted at the time of the surgery. Recent metastases of the bone has been diagnosed and she is in the terminal phase of the disease process. Up to this point, she has been on a regimen

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    Opioid Addiction

    Opioid addiction is a serious chronic relapsing but treatable disorder. Treatments approaches must be tailored to address each client’s drug abuse patterns, psychiatric and social problems, the primary care provider will choose along with client the best treatment. There is no right or wrong medications, only the right and wrong ways to use them. The treatment course will depended on duration of addiction, prior treatment experience, co-morbid medical and psychiatric conditions, and preferences for

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    Social Science Capstone

    A Combined Approach: Seeking an Effective Method to Treat Opioid Addiction Jason Yarborough SOC 490 Dr. C. T. Rowley September 16, 2012 A Combined Approach: Seeking an Effective Method to Treat Opioid Addiction Background Addiction treatment approaches can take many forms. From Alcoholics Anonymous meetings to long term inpatient rehabilitation programs, there are many different choices available to those struggling with addiction. Understanding the nature of each type of addiction and

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    Team Sports Participation

    physical activity stimulates your body’s production of neurotransmitters, otherwise known as endorphins. A study published in 2008 in the journal “Cerebral Cortex” found that elevated levels of endogenous opioids, or endorphins, account for the runner’s high feeling due to increased binding with opioid receptors in the limbic and prefrontal areas of your brain, which cause a “feel-good” response that decreases pain and helps release symptoms of stress and tension. Participating in a team sport can also

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    Comparative Juornal on Drug Treatment

    In this essay, I will do a journal article comparison. The articles selected have something in common – treatment of drug. The first article is “Do drug treatment variables predict cognitive performance in multidrug-treated opioid-dependent patients? A regression analysis study” by Pekka Rapeli, Carola Fabritius, Hely Kalska and Hannu Alho. This article was taken from an open access article under Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2012, at http://www.substanceabusepolicy.com/content/7/1/45

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    buprenorphine, gold standard treatment A Critique of the Research Article: Methadone/Buprenorphine and Better Maternal/ Perinatal Outcomes: A Meta-analysis Methadone is a synthetic opioid. It is used medically as an analgesic and a maintenance anti-addictive and reductive preparation for use by patients with opioid dependency. It was developed in Germany in 1937. Methadone was introduced into the United States in 1947 by Eli Lilly and Company. The principal effects of methadone maintenance are

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    Drug Abuse

    and often deadly problem of prescription opioid abuse. The number of prescrip­ tions filled for opioid pain relievers—some of the most powerful medications available—has increased dramatically in recent years. From 1997 to 2007, the milligram per person use of prescription opioids in the U.S. increased from 74 milligrams to 369 milligrams, an increase of 402 percent.5 In addition, in 2000, retail pharmacies dispensed 174 million prescriptions for opioids; by 2009, 257 million prescrip­ tions were

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    Heroin Addiction and Treatment

    a synthetic opioid that binds to the mu-opioid receptor. As a partial agonist the maximum effect of buprenorphine is less than the maximum effect of full agonists at the receptor. Buprenorphine is probably less likely to produce intoxication. It will displace most other opioids from the receptor, and if taken first, other opioids will be unable to displace it, even in high doses” (Lobmaier and Gossop et al., 2010). What this means for the heroin addict is if they take any other opioid they will not

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    Tolerance and Withdrawal

    effect”. (NIDA research report series, 2005) Heroin is also an opioid drug and with Heroin, it can be snorted, smoked, injected and inhaled. Once heroin substance is administered the pharmacological route involves crossing the blood brain barrier where the permeability of heroin is ten times higher than morphine.  “Once heroin crosses the blood brain barrier, it is hydrolyzed into 6-acetyl morphine and morphine, which then quickly bind to opioid receptors. The “rush” felt by heroin users is the sensation

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    Pain Medication

    prescription medications which are Corticosteroids, Opioids, Antidepressants, Anticonvulsants (anti-seizure medications) and many others”. These can be used to get rid of the common headache, arthritis, or muscle and joint pain. In some cases it may take weeks before a specific medication starts to work, therefore making a person turn to another option (WebMD, 2008).      Morphine is a narcotic pain drug indicated for the relief of pain in patients who require opioid analgesics for more than a few days. Morphine

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    Pain Killers: a Deadly Addiction

    epidemic of addicted individuals and causing thousands of deaths each year. There are two types of painkillers: narcotic opioid drugs and over the counter medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Aspirin works by going to the site of the pain and blocking pain signals from being sent to the brain. Although we may still have an injury, our body isn't letting our brain know it. Opioids work in a similar manner by blocking pain signals to the brain; however, they also alter the way the pain feels to the

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    Opiods and Local Anaesthetics

    2014 2,495 words Contents Summary ............................................................................................. 2 Introduction ........................................................................................ 2 Opioids ................................................................................................ 2 Local Anaesthetics .............................................................................. 3 Side Effects.......................................

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    Misson One

    and duration of action. True or False 3. Clinicians perform a sensory (dermatome level) and motor assessment (Bromage score) when opioids are administered via epidural. True or False 4. It is possible to produce analgesia without sensory and motor blockage with low doses of local anesthetics. True or False 5. Pruritus is a common side effect of epidural opioids and is manifested most often by a generalized rash. True or False 6. Administration of antiemetic, ordered by the anesthesiologists

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    Page 10 Work Cited…………………………………………. Page 11 Background: Vicodin is an orally taken painkiller composed of a combination of acetaminophen and hydrocodone, classifying it as an opioid pain reliever. In this capacity, Vicodin will bind to opioid receptors and reduce the sending of pain messages to the brain 1. Opioid receptors are used to control pain, slow breathing, and have a general calming affect. In a regular Vicodin tablet, there is 5mg of hydrocodone, which reacts with the 300mg of acetaminophen

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    Concept Analysis

    management, opioid pharmaceuticals and their adjuncts, regional anesthesia, and physical therapy are used in the goal of managing acute pain rather than the absence of pain. Upp et al. (2013) states the “APM team undertakes cases alongside experts in addiction medicine, palliative care, psychiatry, rehabilitative medicine, and chronic pain, further enabling the health care system to offer expert, and seamless, acute pain therapy across a broad variety of etiologies”. The reliance on opioid pharmaceuticals

    Words: 4216 - Pages: 17

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    Chronic Pain

    disease (such as arthritis or phantom pain) that is causing the chronic pain. • The cause of chronic pain might be unknown or poorly understood. Identify common concerns related to long-term use of opiod medications. Medications which bind to opioid receptors are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of multiple and diverse chronic painful conditions. Their use for acute pain or terminal pain is well accepted. Their role in the long-term treatment of chronic noncancer pain is, however

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    Hurtinghealing &Amp

    They are called synthetic opiates. They are created in chemical laboratories and share the same chemical build, these form of opiates are called Opioids. “Another important opioid is thebaine, which is used to make opioid analgesics such as oxymorphone, oxycodone, and naloxone. Morphine extracted from opium can also be used to make heroin, an illegal opioid and a major drug of abuse in the United States. People have known about and used opium since ancient times. Initially it was used for the treatment

    Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

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    Pain Management

    Improvements in nurses' knowledge of pain assessment, opioid dosing, and likelihood of addiction seem to have occurred. However, knowledge deficits continue. Fewer than one-half of the nurses surveyed understand that the patient's self report of pain is the single most reliable indicator of pain and that the nurse should increase a previously safe but ineffective dose of opioid. Findings from surveys on addiction reveal that the longer the patient receives opioids the more concerned nurses become about causing

    Words: 5126 - Pages: 21

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    Methadone and Suboxone

    A Comparison of Methadone and Suboxone in Opioid Treatment Program Julien Nougarou Upper Iowa University Abstract Addiction to opioids is a common problem throughout the world. Maintenance treatments such as Methadone and Suboxone are effective in lessening the desire to consume illicit drugs, but they are not perfect options for drug treatment as each has negative effects, too. In this paper, both the positive and negative effects of the drugs Methadone and Suboxone will be determined and

    Words: 2769 - Pages: 12

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    How Plants Avoid Sunburn

    glance, one might infer that the main mechanism by which morphine is working is through pain reduction, but our results lead us to think it could also be affecting the process of fear learning. His laboratory didn’t set out to examine the effects of opioid drugs in the context of PTSD. Rather, he was looking at what genes are activated in the brains of mice after they are exposed to stress. They were specifically probing for changes in the amygdala, a region of the brain long known to be involved in

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    As one prescription drug abuser in his early 20’s explained: Once people (pill brokers) know you take them prescription opioids, they’ll start calling you. “Oh, it’s this time of the month.” Then they wait for that person to get their script. They know exactly in their head what day the script’s getting ready to come so they got the patterns down. Pill brokers and dealers reported congregating in open air drug markets typically strip mall and pharmacy parking lots, and outside methadone clinics

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    term effects like time/perception loss or anxiety come from THC (Volkow). Another harmful substance released drugs are opioids [synthetic narcotic that mimics the naturally occurring opiates] these act by attaching to specific proteins called “opioid receptors found in the brain, spinal cord and gastrointestinal tract] these act by attaching to specific proteins called “opioid receptors found in the brain, spinal cord and gastrointestinal tract (National Institute on Drug Abuse). Types of Drugs

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    S/P Aka Careplan

    |2.Alcohol cirrhosis liver | | | | | |1. Opioid analgesic |60mg PO |Respiratory depression |Monitor respiratory function and LOC | |Morphine-sulphate(generic) |Binds to opioid receptors, |BID(!!!) |Constipation |Push fluids | | |producing analgesia & |(Patient

    Words: 2041 - Pages: 9

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    injection in the veins. It has been demonstrated that most opioid-dependent patients suffer from at least one severe psychiatric comorbidity. Since opioids used in pain therapy rarely cause any of these conditions, they are assumed to have existed prior to the development of dependence. Opioids are known to have strong antidepressant anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects and thus opioid dependence often develops as a result of self-medication. Opioids are excellent acute pain medication, but it is their

    Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

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    Methadone Therapy

    (Samala and Davis, 2013). Methadone has become one of the most important agents for treating opioid-nonresponsive pain in palliative care (Hawley, 2012). Often times, the type of pain cancer presents with is neuropathic. Methadone has been widely found to be particularly useful for neuropathic pain (Hawley, 2012). Methadone is primarily a mu opioid receptor agonist but also has the properties of delta opioid receptor agonism N-methyl-D-aspartate (NDMA) antagonism, and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake

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    Over the Counter, over Prescribed

    as some of the most lethal. In 2008 the CDC found that the drug overdose death rate for opioid pain relievers was higher than all illicit drugs combines, as seen in Figure 2 in the appendix, surpassing the likes of both heroin and cocaine combined. Why is this happening? To understand this growing epidemic, one has to look at the properties of these drugs. Prescription pain killers are also known as opioids, which are basically synthetic versions of opium that are used to treat pain. These medicines

    Words: 4393 - Pages: 18

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    people die from an opioid overdose each year. (Information Sheet on Opioid Overdose). Heroin is just one of the many opioid forms labeled as analgesics. An analgesic relieves pain and is also called a “pain-killer”. Opioids are created from the plant “papaver somniferum”, better known as the opium poppy. The earliest records of this plant date back thousands of years ago to a Sumerian tablet which called the plant the “flower of joy.” The opium poppy is the root source of all opioids, the seed pod is

    Words: 2037 - Pages: 9

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    • Cannabis • Hallucinogen • Inhalant • Opioid • Sedative • Hypnotic or Anxiolytic • Stimulant • Tobacco If an individual uses opioids their routine urine toxicology test results are often positive for the drug. The results remain positive for most opioids for 12-36hours after the drug test. The most common medical disorder that is associated with opioid use are viral and bacterial infections such as: HIV, hepatitis C virus). Individuals with opioid disorder are at risk for the development

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    Organizational Systems and Quality Leadership

    receiving the medication, and what was the outcome in the case. The third part of the model would be screening patients that will be receiving hydromorphone for respiratory depression risk factors, assess for any previous history of use or abuse of opioid medications, and ensuring that the staff has the proper education about appropriate medication administration. The PDSA cycle would then be used to test and make changes to the model so that the patients receiving hydromorphone have been properly

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    Rn Drugs

    | |Oxycontin-brand name time release form |10 mg PO BID |Bonds to opiate receptors-alters pain |Alters pain perception and response to |Chronic pain treatment | |or Oxycodone; opioid analgesics | |perception, 12 hr release form |stimuli | | |Acetaminophen, Tylenol; analgesics |650mg PO PRN Q4

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    It is hypothesized that a genetic influence may play a role in heroin addiction. Some research supports that there is a significate genetic influence involved with heroin addiction. (Jacobs, 2013) Heroin falls into a category of drugs called opioids. There is some evidence that links prescription pain pill use to heroin. In the last few years, it has become increasingly more difficult to obtain pain medication such as oxycodone or hydrocodone. This has come as a result of a crackdown on pill

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    Pharmacy Drug List - Analgesics

    maximal recommended doses | Less effective | Opioids | Effective | May be effective (depends of choice and dose) | NSAIDs | Effective (usually anti-inflammatory effects) | Less effective | Antidepressants, antiepileptics, local anesthetics | Rarely used | May be effective (TCAs and antiepileptics Tx of choice) | FIGURE 1: The WHO analgesic ladder for cancer pain is often used for acute and chronic non-cancer (nociceptive) pain. NON-OPIOID ANALGESICS Drug | Indication | Dose | Monitoring

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    Prescription Opioids

    Prescription Opioids Deanna Pannell Aurora University One of the growing problems in America is the abuse of prescription opioids. In the past 10 years, the misuse of prescribed opioids has gone out of control, making it a national issue that many people are attempting to attack. Prescription opioid use is increasing in public health, creating an epidemic that is growing rapidly. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse: opiates, depressants, and stimulants are the three drug classifications

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    Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Causes

    Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) refers to the collection clinical signs correlated with opioid withdrawal that usually manifests as neurological excitability, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and autonomic over reactivity (3). Throughout the past decade, there has been rising public health, medical, and political devotion disbursed to the parallel growth in two developments: an escalation in the prevalence of prescription opioid abuse and an escalation in the incidence of NAS. The diagnosis of NAS has increased

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    Document Composition

    a potential source of a wide range of biologically active peptides, including some with affinity to opioid receptors. The latter are also known as opioid peptides. Opioid peptide sequences have been characterised in animal and plant proteins. To date much work has focused on characterising opioid peptides derived from milk proteins, in particular the caseins. Beta-casomorphins are a group of opioid peptides which can be released from β-casein. The β-casein derived peptide with the sequence Tyr60-Pro61-Phe62-Pro63-Gly64-Pro65-Ile66

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    A Growing Epidemic

    legislation to help cope and deal with the growing issues at hand. On June 17, 2015, one such bill was introduced to a congressional committee, H.R. 2805: Heroin and Prescription Opioid Abuse Prevention, Education, and Enforcement Act of 2015 (S. H.R. 2805, 2015). H.R. 2805 is a bill, which addresses prescription opioid abuse and heroin use, and methods of managing such issues through the development of best prescribing practices, amendments to controlled substance monitoring programs, Naloxone demonstration

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    Physical and Psychological Dependence

    Natural opiate drugs come from natural opium alkaloids, which include – * Demerol- Demerol is a drug used to control pain and Demerol is also known as meperidine. Demerol is the brand name for meperidine which is a member of the opioids drug class. Other Opioids that are similar to Demerol include morphine, codeine, heroin, Vicodin, Dilaudid and OxyContin among others. Addiction to Demerol is characterized by the National Institute of Drug Abuse very simply as having a compulsive, uncontrollable

    Words: 727 - Pages: 3

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    Research Critique

    of local heat therapy on the intensity, the duration and the frequency of chest pain episodes in patients with acute coronary syndrome” (Mohammadpour et al., 2013). The second question was, “what is the effect of local heat therapy on the need for opioid analgesic therapy” (Mohammadpour et al., 2013). Data Collection The setting for this research project was a coronary care unit at a hospital in Iran. Participants with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome “having a normal haemodynamic status

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    Drugs in the Workplace

    healthcare. When used wisely and correctly, prescription medications can contribute to favorable treatment outcomes and quality of life. However, a disturbing trend has been emerging in the workplace, and it is driven by the use and abuse of opioid painkillers. Opioid use is now the most widely prescribed pain relievers and the most highly abused prescription drug. Prescription pain killers pose a complex challenge to employers because of its very nature. These legal drugs are prescribed by licenses

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    expression in infants 3. Pain management a. nonpharmacologic approaches (e.g., behavioral and environmental strategies) b. pharmacologic interventions (e.g., nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, and adjuvant analgesics) (1) side effects (2) assessment and management of opioid tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal (3) local anesthetics and analgesics (e.g., EMLA [eutectic mixture of local anesthetics], lidocaine, Ametop creams) c. special procedural techniques (e.g., venipuncture

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    Impact of Cannabis Law

    manuscript Author Manuscript JAMA Intern Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 October 01. Published in final edited form as: JAMA Intern Med. 2014 October ; 174(10): 1668–1673. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005. Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999–2010 Author Manuscript Marcus A. Bachhuber, MD, Brendan Saloner, PhD, Chinazo O. Cunningham, MD, MS, and Colleen L. Barry, PhD, MPP Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Philadelphia

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    Fourth Year

    treatment for acute pain, such as in severe physical trauma, myocardial infarction, post-surgical pain, and chronic pain, including end-stagecancer and other terminal illnesses. In other countries it is more common to use morphine or other strong opioids in these situations. In 2004, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence produced guidance on the management of caesarian section, which recommended the use of intrathecal or epidural diacetylmorphine for post-operative pain relief

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    Topical Morphine

    efficacious in the treatment of ulcer-related pain.1,2 At the Medical Oncology Department of the University of L’Aquila, five patients with malignant or benign painful ulcers were observed recently. All were affected by metastatic cancer and were receiving opioids; none was receiving disease-oriented therapies. On admission, all patients reported pain localized to ulcers, which was no longer controlled by systemic treatment; pain scores were O 5 on a numerical rating scale (NRS). Morphine was topically applied

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    Technological Advancements in Pain Management

    common pharmacological treatment for pain consists of the use of opioids and narcotics. A narcotic is “. . . a drug (as opium or morphine) that in moderate doses dulls the senses, relieves pain, and induces profound sleep but in excessive causes stupor, coma, or convulsions. . .” (narcotic). An opioid is “. . . a group of natural or synthetic bio-chemicals, esp. endorphines that relieve pain in the same way that narcotics do” (opioid). These medications are used throughout the world to treat moderate

    Words: 1759 - Pages: 8

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    Prescription Medication Abuse

    taken with other medications or not taken properly. In many cases this may cause severe illness or even death. The most common abused medication is opioids. Opioids include pain relievers such as: Vicodin, OxyContin, and Percocet’s. These opioids are dangerous because not only do they get you high they are highly addictive. In some cases opioids can be administered in more ways than oral. “Most prescription drugs come in pill or capsule form. Sometimes, people who abuse prescription drugs break

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    involvement, use of opioids) • Long-term opioid therapy • Multiple drug therapy Some of these characteristics, such as malnutrition, low serum albumin, and decreased renal function, may seriously affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs used for symptom control; these patients usually tolerate lower doses of drugs compared with other medically or psychiatrically ill patients. The high frequency of autonomic nervous system failure increases the risk of some side effects from opioids, tricyclic antidepressants

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    Review Starting Step III opioids for moderate to severe pain in cancer patients: Dose titration: A systematic review Palliative Medicine 25(5) 424–430 ! The Author(s) 2010 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/0269216310386280 pmj.sagepub.com ˚ Pal Klepstad Pain and Palliation Research Group, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway; Department

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